Binary Notations

Are there any difference between kB (kilobyte), MB (megabyte), GB (gigabyte) and KiB (kibibyte), MiB (mebibyte), GiB (gibibyte)?

Yes of course, there are differences.

1 kB = 1000 bytes
Whereas, 1 KiB = 1024 bytes
1 MB = 1000 kB
Whereas, 1 MiB = 1024 KiB
1 GB = 1000 MB
Whereas, 1 GiB = 1024 MiB

Let me clarify this with another example.

1 kB = 1024 bytes (Wrong)
1 MB = 1024 kB (Wrong)
1 GB = 1024 MB (Wrong)
Similarly,
1 KiB = 1000 bytes (Wrong)
1 MiB = 1000 KiB (Wrong)
1 GiB = 1000 MiB (Wrong)

The correct values are:
1 kB = 1000 bytes (Correct)
1 MB = 1000 kB (Correct)
1 GB = 1000 MB (Correct)
Similarly,
1 KiB = 1024 bytes (Correct)
1 MiB = 1024 KiB (Correct)
1 GiB = 1024 MiB (Correct)

What all these means?
The traditional kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte values (otherwise called as ‘SI prefixes’) are based on power of 10. Whereas, kibibyte, mebibyte, gibibyte values (otherwise called as ‘IEC binary prefixes’) are based on power of 2.

Digital storage manufacturers and most *nix (Unix-like) operating systems (generally) use the SI prefixes to report the values. Whereas, MS Windows uses the IEC binary prefixes to calculate the values but report the values in SI prefixes. In other words, MS Windows computes file size in mebibytes, but report the number as MB!

Now you know the reason behind the formatted capacity of HDDs, for example, 1 TB HDD, differs on a *nix system and MS Windows system.

On most *nix systems, the formatted capacity of a 1 TB HDD is generally reported as 1 TB (1,000,000,000,000 bytes). To compute this value, the system used SI prefixes.

On MS Windows, the formatted capacity of a 1 TB HDD is reported as 931 GB (953,674 MB). To compute this value, MS Windows used IEC binary prefixes. But as you can see, the system reported the calculated value in SI prefixes (GB) but not in IEC binary prefixes (GiB)!

In a similar way, consumer confusion also exists in kbit (kilobit), Mbit (megabit), Gbit (gigabit) and Kibit (kibibit), Mibit (mebibit), Gibit (gibibit) values. But that’s another story to tell!

Copyright: Text is licensed to Robin Mathew Rajan under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

The Free Software Song – written by Richard Stallman

I’m now listening to the Free Software Song written by Richard Stallman and performed by Mark Forry, Yvette Osborne, Ron Fox, Steve Finney, Bill Cope, Kip McAtee, Ernie Provencher and Dan Auvil!
Performing style: Traditional Bulgarian folk song
Size: 3.35 MiB
File format: Ogg Vorbis
ftp://pub.robinmathewrajan.com/contents/audios/Free_Software_Song/Free_Software_Song_Bulgarian_Traditional_Style.ogg

An instrumental version is also available which is performed on Piano by Markus Haist.
Size: 1.16 MiB
File format: Ogg Vorbis
ftp://pub.robinmathewrajan.com/contents/audios/Free_Software_Song/markushaist_free_software_song_piano_instrumental.ogg

Other collections can be download from: ftp://pub.robinmathewrajan.com/contents/audios/Free_Software_Song/

My thoughts about our sister Aayenah Pahuja and about the recent IFFI controversy

As I have also faced some bullying and harsh criticisms in the past, I know how she feels like. Some f*****g people think they are 100% perfect but in-fact they are some f*****g dumb morons actually. And those f*****s start criticising the mistakes of anyone without knowing the actual reason. Hey people, don’t be judgemental and never do negative criticism on anybody without knowing their actual story. >_<

I support you sister. 🙂

If Aayenah Pahuja is seeing this post, I would like to share my tip how I tackled those f*****g morons who bullied me in the past. No matter how much they bullied me, I never let myself down. Of course, for the first few times, I did felt very sad. But once I discovered about myself and what my capabilities are and what things makes me different and unique than them, I felt proud of myself. Indeed, their bullying and negative criticisms made me stronger.

Nowadays, I don’t care what others think about me. That doesn’t mean I do whatever I feels right. I do lend my ears to suggestions and positive criticisms. Based on those suggestions and positive criticisms I make my own opinions. I never downright copy someone’s suggestions entirely. I analyse that suggestion or criticism, compares that to my opinion and makes decision. In most cases, my opinions and decisions proved very accurate and useful than others’. If any mistakes occur, I apologise too.

Here comes the most interesting part. The people who bullied me in the past, often calls for my help for many things nowadays. They now know who I am. 😀

The DD News anchor Aayenah Pahuja tells her version of the story about the IFFI controversy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k24MlS3jkwQ

http://thelogicalindian.com/my-story/iffi-dumb-dd-news-anchor/

 

 

The Myth & Truth about Retina Displays (Myth Buster Series)

There’s no such thing as a specific device for ‘Retina Display’. Actually, every display whether it’s CRT, LCD or OLED are retina displays if it’s kept some distance from eyes till the ‘Pixels’ are not seen by human eyes. In other words, once the individual can’t be seen by our eyes, that display is a Retina Display.

Usually we hold our Mobile Devices closer to our eyes than other displays. And such displays used in high end Mobile Devices are made in such a ways that Pixels are very tiny than other displays when kept some distance from eye.

For example,

CRT Monitor > Eyes at a distance of 5 CM > Individual Pixels can be seen > Not a Retina Display

High end display (say OLED) > Eyes at a distance of 5 CM > Individual Pixels can’t be seen > Is a Retina Display

Notes: In first case, the CRT monitor is not a Retina Display because the Pixels can be seen. Whereas the OLED monitor is a Retina Display because it’s Pixels can’t be seen.

Let’s take the same example in other way.

Example 2

CRT Monitor > Eyes at a distance of 30 CM > Individual Pixels can’t be seen > Is a Retina Display

High end display (say OLED) > Eyes at a distance of 5 CM > Individual Pixels can’t be seen > Is a Retina Display

Note: Notice the changes in first example & the second example.

In short: The term ‘Retina Display’ is just a marketing term to denote the images look sharper than ever before even the screen is hold in-front of eyes so close.

Copyright: Text is licensed to Robin Mathew Rajan under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

This information was originally posted on April 20, 2013 in my facebook wall.

Vuze – A highly advanced and customisable cross-platform BitTorrent client!

For uTorrent, BitTorrent and other torrent client users, try Vuze. It’s much more advanced, feature rich, easy to use cross-platform client with good GUI. And what’s more, it’s free and open source too. Just give Vuze a try.

It’s a Java application. You must install Java on your machine before you start using it.

Advanced users might want to install ‘Mainline DHT’ plugin for Vuze for even better download speeds.

www.vuze.com/

For those who don’t know, Mainline DHT plugin integrates the DHT protocol used in uTorrent and BitTorrent to Vuze. Vuze has its own DHT feature. But that DHT is incompatible with uTorrent/BitTorrent clients. With this plugin, you can have both types of DHT in one single client! It’s another feature that I love in Vuze. There are lots of useful features like this in Vuze.

Update: Nowadays, Azureus Software, Inc. the makers of Vuze, gives out web-installer through their website for Windows users. If you want a standalone installer, visit their project hosting page at SourceForge.

http://sourceforge.net/projects/azureus/files/vuze/

SourceForge highlights the web-installer under the headline ‘Looking for the latest version?’. Don’t choose it. Instead, browse the folders and choose the installer with file size 5 MiB or above.

The benefits of choosing standalone installer over a web-installer is already discussed in my previous Google Chrome post at here: https://www.robinmathewrajan.com/ramblings/google-chrome-64-bit-exits-beta-stable-version-officially-available-for-free-download/

This information was originally posted on November 7, 2012 in my facebook wall.

Computer Hardware Chart [Xprt]

This high resolution (4320×6120) PNG image chart features almost all types of Computer Hardware Peripherals and Ports.

A must have for all Technology Enthusiasts!

Download Size: 24 MB

Download from KickAssTorrents: http://bit.ly/ChChqK

Alternate Links

http://bit.ly/ChChqT

http://bit.ly/ChChqC

 

This information was originally posted on August 14, 2012 in my facebook wall.

RTI (Right to Information) Anonymous- File your RTI petitions anonymously.

Yes, Indians can now file RTI (Right to Information) petitions online as anonymous, without even leveraging security.

All you need to do is to send an email regarding the problem you are facing to RTI Anonymous. Since you have a ‘Right To Information’ to know why have you been kept waiting in a particular government department for your work to be processed. The best part is this, while applying for the RTI your Identity won’t be revealed and you will get all the information required mailed at your email ID.

Few things might be still wondering in your minds!

What are the consequences after filing the RTI in normal way?

Once you file a RTI against any government officials there are chances of many threats. I am not demotivating you, but to give a rough idea of the things which often happen in real scenario. Read the space to get the full details of filling a RTI anonymously.

“There is no protection for the common man who files an RTI application. There are so many school teachers who have been killed across the country for seeking information via RTI, reducing RTI to a complete sham since there is no protection offered. An RTI activist was killed earlier this month in Hyderabad itself and almost 350 people have been killed so far in barbaric manner to discourage others from using RTI. It is only a law on paper because the law does not work to offer protection barring the Whistleblower’s Act. There is no serious move to protect those who use RTI. RTI deaths is one of the worst sagas in history of India. True freedom is the ability of a common man to bring a sea change in system.” – Filmmaker Mani Shankar

What is the Role of RTI Anonymous?

This brings your safety when it comes to RTI Act. In RTI Anonymous you need to send an online petition to http://getup4change.org. This Anonymous community takes the rest of the charge. When they get the proper response from the government officials they will get back to you with a scanned copy of the report. This makes your work more simpler and easy.

Quick Steps for what you need to do:

  • Login to Getup4Change at http://getup4change.org.
  • Submit your Username and Email ID, within few minutes you will receive a mail with the password.
  • Now, login and submit your query with proper document.
  • The RTI Anonymous community volunteers gets into action and makes the proper moves by consulting various authorities and submits the request.
  • After getting the response from the government officials, RTI Anonymous groups forwards the required details to you.
  • Thus, makes your Identity as Anonymous.

 

Sources: getup4change.org, buggingweb.com

This information was originally posted at September 16, 2012 on my facebook wall.

Skype to block local voice calls originating from India starting November 10.

Skype to block local voice calls originating from India starting November 10.

Yes, it’s true and officially confirmed.

Skype to block local voice calls originating from India starting November 10.

Skype to block local voice calls originating from India starting November 10.

Read

  1.  From the support page of Skype: https://support.skype.com/en/faq/FA34487/why-can-i-no-longer-make-calls-to-india-from-india
  2.  A Times of India article on the same: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tech/tech-news/Skype-to-block-local-voice-calls-from-India-starting-November-10/articleshow/44479747.cms

Reason

According to Indian law, although it’s legal to use VoIP, it’s illegal to have VoIP gateways (server) in India. Read: The TRAI PDF whitepaper. The irony is that, the Government is forcing VoIP service providers to place VoIP gateways inside India while it’s illegal to do so! Read: News article from Times of India – “Government wants Skype to set up servers in India”.

Get my point here? The Government is forcing VoIP service providers to place gateways inside in India, while not amending the earlier policy which made it illegal. So in anyways, VoIPs can’t offer local calls ‘legally’. The contradictory polices of both TRAI and Government of India made VoIP service providers difficult to operate in India. So naturally, Skype had to stop the services.

What do you think of this move? Comment your opinion.

Further reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_IP

Copyright: Text is licensed to Robin Mathew Rajan under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

The reason why Microsoft avoided the number 9 on their recent Windows release!

There’s a clear reason why Microsoft avoided the number 9 on their recent Windows release.

Most people are not aware of this fact.

From the Wikipedia

Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions. This includes all versions of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me.

 

That clearly states, Microsoft avoided the number 9 to avoid confusion between the legacy Windows series and the new Windows releases. I wonder why almost nobody thought about this!

Further reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_9x

Disclaimer: I put forward this theory based on my research and experiences. There’s no proof that this’s the sole reason out there unless of course Microsoft release an official statement.

 

If you wish, you can subscribe to my blog posts by email. 😉

Getting into Martian Orbit [infographic]

Getting Into Martian Orbit! (Review)

Mars Orbiter Mission aka Mangalyaan, successfully made into the Mars orbit! Kudos to all people who streamlined this project!

The spacecraft has been unofficially called since as Mangalyaan (मंगलयान). The term Mangalyaan is actually referred as ‘Mars Vehicle’. Mangal (मंगल) means Mars and Yaan (यान) means Vehicle.

Mangalyaan Quick Timeline

Mangalyaan Quick Timeline

With the success of Mars mission, India became the first country in Asia and also the first country ever in the world to place a spacecraft into Mars orbit in its very first attempt. That’s a huge record breaking success. Along with it, ISRO became the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. Also to noted that our mission is the cheapest Mars mission compared to other successful and failed global missions. No space for poverty vs. scientific achievements here.

Quotes from Times of India

At approximately Rs 450 crore or around $75 million, the cost of the mission was only about one-tenth of the $670 million Nasa spent on its Maven explorer.

European space agency’s 2003 Mars express orbiter had cost about $386 million. Another exploration mission by Japanese, which failed to enter the Red Planet’s orbit, had cost more than double than that of Mangalyaan. Russia’s Phobos-Grunt which failed to leave the earth’s orbit cost about $117 million.

India has been particularly proud that MOM was developed with homegrown technology.

Quotes from BBC

Many, however, say this bid to reach Mars is a “delusional dream” of India seeking super-power status since 400 million Indians still live without electricity and 600 million people still do not have access to toilets.

However, in real terms, the Mangalyaan has cost India just about four rupees (seven cents; four pence) per person – which is chicken feed for a country of 1.2 billion people.

Another quote from BBC

Though India says its Mars mission is the cheapest inter-planetary mission ever to have been undertaken in half a century of space exploration, some are questioning its scientific purpose.

“This is a highly suboptimal mission with limited scientific objectives,” says D Raghunandan of Delhi Science Forum, a think tank.

Others like economist-activist Jean Dreze have said the mission “seems to be part of the Indian elite’s delusional quest for superpower status”.

Rejecting such talk, a top government official says: “We have heard these arguments since the 1960s, about India being a poor country not needing or affording a space programme.

“If we can’t dare to dream big it would leave us as hewers of wood and drawers of water! India is today too big to be just living on the fringes of high technology.”

We had a few technical challenges though. The hardest one was the use of PSLV to launch the spacecraft instead of GSLV. PSLV is a Polar launch vehicle and GSLV is Geo-Stationary launch vehicle. Technically, Polar launch vehicles are not designed to launch interplanetary space missions. The world uses Geo-Stationary launch vehicles for that purpose. But the real hard nut was the trust bit. PSLV has proven its worthiness in many successful missions, while GSLV had a very few successful missions.

Because of the use of PSLV, we had to take few series of orbit raising maneuvers instead of placing the spacecraft directly into Trans-Martian Trajectory (direct injection). That’s the reason why NASA’s MAVEN reached Mars first even though it was launched some days after the launch of Mangalyaan. But many are largely ignorant about this fact and they use this information to criticize the side-step of India’s first inter-planetary mission. Sad!

But hey, that’s ok. After all, we did reached Mars in our first attempt, didn’t we? 😉

Getting into Martian Orbit [infographic]

Getting into Martian Orbit [infographic]

One suggestion to ISRO

Almost all NASA materials are in the public domain. NASA materials are not protected by copyright unless noted! Refer: http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/policies.html#Guidelines
I would suggest adapting the same policy for ISRO too. That’s one area where ISRO still lacks. Refer:  http://www.isro.org/scripts/termsofuse.aspx

If ISRO officials are reading this article, please consider my suggestion to remove the copyrights.

If you can’t read the Devanagari (देवनागरी) Hindi (हिन्दी) scripts used in this article, please turn on Unicode (UTF-8) support in your web browser or install supported fonts.

Further reading: http://www.isro.org/mars/updates.aspx, http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2014/09/draft-indias-mom-spacecraft-arrive-mars/

Corrections and suggestions to this article are most welcome.

Copyright: Text is licensed to Robin Mathew Rajan under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

For those who don’t know, the ‘Creative Commons’ license doesn’t forbid copying. It actually allows anyone to copy the licensed text. But with only one condition! Proper source must be specified with the copied text. That is, if someone copied some text which is licensed under the Creative Commons, he/she must attribute/acknowledge the original source and author of that text.